Alan Kay, who worked for Xerox PARC, first created the concept for the laptop computer. The laptop is a modern computer and an alternative to the desktop computer.

laptoplaptop computer, or notebook computer is a small, portable personal computer (PC) with a screen and alphanumeric keyboard. These typically have a clamshell form factor, typically having the screen mounted on the inside of the upper lid and the keyboard on the inside of the lower lid, although 2-in-1 PCs with a detachable keyboard are often marketed as laptops or as having a laptop mode. Laptops are folded shut for transportation, and thus are suitable for mobile use. Its name comes from the lap, as it was deemed practical to be placed on a person’s lap when being used. Today, laptops are used in a variety of settings, such as at work, in education, for playing gamesweb browsing, for personal multimedia, and general home computer use.

The basic components of laptops function identically to their desktop counterparts. Traditionally they were miniaturized and adapted to mobile use, although desktop systems increasingly use the same smaller, lower-power parts which were originally developed for mobile use. The design restrictions on power, size, and cooling of laptops limit the maximum performance of laptop parts compared to that of desktop components, although that difference has increasingly narrowed.

In general, laptop components are not intended to be replaceable or upgradable by the end-user, except for components that can be detached; in the past, batteries and optical drives were commonly exchangeable. This restriction is one of the major differences between laptops and desktop computers because the large “tower” cases used in desktop computers are designed so that new motherboards, hard disks, sound cards, RAM, and other components can be added. Memory and storage can often be upgraded with some disassembly, but with the most compact laptops, there may be no upgradeable components at all. Some of the components are described below


Internally, a display is usually an LCD panel, although occasionally OLEDs are used. These interface to the laptop using the LVDS or embedded DisplayPort protocol, while externally, it can be a glossy screen or a matte (anti-glare) screen. As of 2021, mainstream consumer laptops tend to come with either 13″ or 15″-16″ screens; 14″ models are more popular among business machines. Larger and smaller models are available, but less common – there is no clear dividing line in minimum or maximum size. Machines small enough to be handheld (screens in the 6–8″ range) can be marketed either as very small laptops or “handheld PCs,” while the distinction between the largest laptops and “All-in-One” desktops is whether they fold for travel.


In the past, there was a broader range of marketing terms (both formal and informal) to distinguish between different sizes of laptops. These included NetbookssubnotebooksUltra-mobile PC, and Desktop replacement computers; these are sometimes still used informally, although they are essentially dead in terms of manufacturer marketing.


Having a higher resolution display allows more items to fit onscreen at a time, improving the user’s ability to multitask, although at the higher resolutions on smaller screens, the resolution may only serve to display sharper graphics and text rather than increasing the usable area. Since the introduction of the MacBook Pro with Retina display in 2012, there has been an increase in the availability of “HiDPI” (or high Pixel density) displays; as of 2021, this is generally considered to be anything higher than 1920 pixels wide. This has increasingly converged around 4K (3840-pixel-wide) resolutions.


Laptop’s central processing unit (CPU) has advanced power-saving features and produces less heat than one intended purely for desktop use. Mainstream laptop CPUs made after 2018 have four processor cores, although some inexpensive models still have 2-core CPUs, and 6-core and 8-core models are also available.
For the low price and mainstream performance, there is no longer a significant performance difference between laptop and desktop CPUs, but at the high end, the fastest desktop CPUs still substantially outperform the fastest laptop processors, at the expense of massively higher power consumption and heat generation; the fastest laptop processors top out at 56 watts of heat, while the fastest desktop processors top out at 150 watts.


On most laptops, a graphical processing unit (GPU) is integrated into the CPU to conserve power and space. This was introduced by Intel with the Core i-series of mobile processors in 2010, and similar accelerated processing unit (APU) processors by AMD later that year.
Before that, lower-end machines tended to use graphics processors integrated into the system chipset, while higher-end machines had a separate graphics processor. In the past, laptops lacking a separate graphics processor were limited in their utility for gaming and professional applications involving 3D graphics, but the capabilities of CPU-integrated graphics have converged with the low-end of dedicated graphics processors since the mid-2010s.
Higher-end laptops intended for gaming or professional 3D work still come with dedicated and in some cases even dual, graphics processors on the motherboard or as an internal expansion card. Since 2011, these almost always involve switchable graphics so that when there is no demand for the higher performance dedicated graphics processor, the more power-efficient integrated graphics processor will be used.


Since around the year 2000, most laptops have used RAM although, as of 2021, an increasing number of models use memory soldered to the motherboard. Before 2000, most laptops used proprietary memory modules if their memory was upgradable. In the early 2010s, high-end laptops such as the 2011 Samsung 700G7A have passed the 10 GB RAM barrier, featuring 16 GB of RAM. When upgradeable, memory slots are sometimes accessible from the bottom of the laptop for ease of upgrading; in other cases, accessing them requires significant disassembly. Most laptops have two memory slots, although some will have only one, either for cost savings or because some amount of memory is soldered. Some high-end models have four slots; there are usually mobile engineering workstations, although a few high-end models intended for gaming do as well. As of 2021, 8 GB RAM is most common, with lower-end models occasionally having 4GB. Higher-end laptops may come with 16 GB of RAM or more.


The earliest laptops most often used floppy disk for storage, although a few used either RAM disks or tape, by the late 1980s hard disk drives had become the standard form of storage. Between 1990 and 2009, almost all laptops typically had a hard disk drive (HDD) for storage; since then, solid-state drives (SSD) have gradually come to supplant hard drives in all but some inexpensive consumer models. Solid-state drives are faster and more power-efficient, as well as eliminating the hazard of drive and data corruption caused by a laptop’s physical impacts, as they use no mechanical parts such as a rotational platter.[40] In many cases, they are more compact as well. Initially, in the late 2000s, SSDs were substantially more expensive than HDDs, but as of 2021 prices on smaller capacity (under 1 terabyte) drives have converged; larger capacity drives remain more expensive than comparable-sized HDDs.


Optical disc drives capable of playing CD-ROMs, compact discs (CD), DVDs, and in some cases, Blu-ray discs (BD), were nearly universal on full-sized models between the mid-1990s and the early 2010s. As of 2021, drives are uncommon in compact or premium laptops; they remain available in some bulkier models, but the trend towards thinner and lighter machines is gradually eliminating these drives and players – when needed they can be connected via USB instead.


On a typical laptop, there are several USB ports; if they use only the older USB connectors instead of USB-C, they will typically have an external monitor port (VGADVIHDMI or Mini DisplayPort or occasionally more than one), an audio in/out port (often in form of a single socket) is common. It is possible to connect up to three external displays to a 2014-era laptop via a single Mini DisplayPort, using multi-stream transport technology.


Battery life is highly variable by model and workload and can range from one hour to nearly a day. A battery’s performance gradually decreases over time; a substantial reduction in capacity is typically evident after one to three years of regular use, depending on the charging and discharging pattern and the design of the battery. Innovations in laptops and batteries have seen situations in which the battery can provide up to 24 hours of continued operation, assuming average power consumption levels. An example is the HP EliteBook 6930p when used with its ultra-capacity battery. A 2011 laptop with extended capacity replacement battery inserted.


Laptops with removable batteries may support larger replacement batteries with extended capacity.A laptop’s battery is charged using an external power supply, which is plugged into a wall outlet. The power supply outputs a DC voltage typically in the range of 7.2—24 volts. The power supply is usually external and connected to the laptop through a DC connector cable. In most cases, it can charge the battery and power the laptop simultaneously. When the battery is fully charged, the laptop continues to run on power supplied by the external power supply, avoiding battery use.

If the used power supply is not strong enough to power computing components and charge the battery simultaneously, the battery may charge in a shorter period of time if the laptop is turned off or sleeping. The charger typically adds about 400 grams (0.88 lb) to the overall transporting weight of a laptop, although some models are substantially heavier or lighter. Most 2016-era laptops use a smart battery, a rechargeable battery pack with a built-in battery management system (BMS). The smart battery can internally measure voltage and current, and deduce charge level and State of Health (SoH) parameters, indicating the state of the cells

Portability is usually the first feature mentioned in any comparison of laptops versus desktop PCs.[57] Physical portability allows a laptop to be used in many places—not only at home and the office but also during commuting and flights, in coffee shops, in lecture halls and libraries, at clients’ locations or a meeting room, etc. Within a home, portability enables laptop users to move their devices from the living room to the dining room to the family room. Portability offers several distinct advantages.

Productivity: Using a laptop in places where a desktop PC cannot be used can help employees and students to increase their productivity on work or school tasks, such as an office worker reading their work e-mails during an hour-long commute by train, or a student doing their homework at the university coffee shop during a break between lectures, for example.

Immediacy: Carrying a laptop means having instant access to information, including personal and work files. This allows better collaboration between coworkers or students, as a laptop can be flipped open to look at a report, document, spreadsheet, or presentation anytime and anywhere.

Up-to-date information: If a person has more than one desktop PC, a problem of synchronization arises: changes made on one computer are not automatically propagated to the others. There are ways to resolve this problem, including physical transfer of updated files (using a USB flash memory stick or CD-ROMs) or using synchronization software over the Internet, such as cloud computing. However, transporting a single laptop to both locations avoids the problem entirely, as the files exist in a single location and are always up-to-date.

Connectivity: In the 2010s, a proliferation of Wi-Fi wireless networks and cellular broadband data services (HSDPAEVDO and others) in many urban centres, combined with near-ubiquitous Wi-Fi support by modern laptops meant that a laptop could now have easy Internet and local network connectivity while remaining mobile. Wi-Fi networks and laptop programs are especially widespread at university campuses.

Other advantages of laptops:
Size: Laptops are smaller than desktop PCs. This is beneficial when space is at a premium, for example in small apartments and student dorms. When not in use, a laptop can be closed and put away in a desk drawer.

Low power consumption: Laptops are several times more power-efficient than desktops. A typical laptop uses 20–120 W, compared to 100–800 W for desktops. This could be particularly beneficial for large businesses, which run hundreds of personal computers thus multiplying the potential savings, and homes where there is a computer running 24/7 (such as a home media server, print server, etc.).

Quiet: Laptops are typically much quieter than desktops, due both to the components (quieter, slower 2.5-inch hard drives) and to less heat production leading to the use of fewer and slower cooling fans.

Battery: a charged laptop can continue to be used in case of a power outage and is not affected by short power interruptions and blackouts. A desktop PC needs an uninterruptible power supply (UPS) to handle short interruptions, blackouts, and spikes; achieving an on-battery time of more than 20–30 minutes for a desktop PC requires a large and expensive UPS.

All-in-One: designed to be portable, most 2010-era laptops have all components integrated into the chassis (however, some small laptops may not have an internal CD/CDR/DVD drive, so an external drive needs to be used). For desktops (excluding all-in-ones) this is usually divided into the desktop “tower” (the unit with the CPU, hard drive, power supply, etc.), keyboard, mouse, display screen, and optional peripherals such as speakers.

Different types of laptop

* Notebook
* Ultraportable
* Ultrabook
* Chromebook
* MacBook
* Convertible (2-in-1)
* Tablet as a laptop
* Netbook

Why having a laptop is important?

Today, a laptop is an important school supply for any college student. … Laptops give students the flexibility and freedom they need to work on academic assignments anytime, anywhere. Any kind of computer will assist you in your college years. For most, the freedom that laptops offer is a convenient luxury.
  • Portability and Battery Life – Take Whatever You’re Doing on the Go. Your laptop’s portability is likely one reason you purchased it in the first place.
  • Transfer and Share Files.
  • Stream Music.
  • Watch a Movie.
  • Stream TV Shows.
  • Online Courses.

How can I know that my laptop is original?

You can know if the laptop is original or fake by checking the warranty status of your laptop.

How do I choose a laptop?

Tips for buying a laptop

  1. Category. Tip.
  2. Screen size. 15.6 is standard, but 12 to 14 inches can be more portable.
  3. Display type. Pick IPS for great viewing angles.
  4. RAM & ROM. 4GB RAM or more for multitasking with at least 512GB storage.
  5. Battery. Around 8 hours of battery life support.

1. ASUS ROG Zephyrus G14

About this item

  • Free upgrade to Windows 11 when available. Disclaimer-Upgrade rollout plan is being finalized and is scheduled to begin late in 2021 and continue into 2022. Specific timing will vary by device
  • Processor: AMD Ryzen 7 5800HS Processor, 3.0 GHz Base Speed, Up to 4.3 GHz Max Boost Speed, 8 Cores, 16 Threads, 16MB L3 Cache
  • Access to over 100 high-quality PC games on Windows 10
  • One-month subscription to Xbox Game Pass that’s included with the purchase of your device
  • Memory: 8GB onboard DDR4 3200MHz Support Up to 24GB with | Storage: 512GB M.2 NVMe PCIe 3.0 SSD
  • Graphics: Dedicated NVIDIA GeForce GTX 1650 GDDR6 4GB VRAM, With ROG Boost up to 1515MHz at 50W + 15W with Dynamic Boost
  • Display: 35.56 cm (14-inch) FHD (1920 x 1080) 16:9 LED-Backlit LCD, 144Hz Refresh Rate, IPS-level Anti-Glare Panel, 100% sRGB, Pantone Validated

2.HP Envy x360 Ryzen 5

About this item

  • Processor: AMD Ryzen 5 4500U (2.3 GHz base clock, up to 4.0 GHz max boost clock, 8 MB L3 cache, 6 cores) | Memory: 8 GB DDR4-3200 MHz RAM (onboard) | Storage: 512 GB PCIe NVMe M.2 SSD
  • Operating System & Pre-installed Software: Pre-loaded Windows 11 Home with lifetime validity | Microsoft Office Home & Student 2019
  • Display & Graphics: 33.8 cm (13.3″) diagonal, FHD (1920 x 1080), multitouch-enabled, IPS, edge-to-edge glass, micro-edge, Corning Gorilla Glass NBT, 400 nits, 100% sRGB | AMD Radeon Graphics
  • Ports: 1 SuperSpeed USB Type-C (10Gbps), Display Port 1.4, 2 SuperSpeed USB Type-A (5Gbps), 1 microSD card reader | Without CD-Drive | 3-cell, 51 Wh Li-ion polymer, Supports battery fast charge: approximately 50% in 30 minutes
  • Features: Camera: HP Wide Vision 720p HD camera, Camera Shutter | Microphone: Integrated Dual array digital microphones| Audio: Dual Speakers, Audio by B&O | Keyboard: Full-size backlit keyboard |Networking: Realtek RTL8822CE 802.11a/b/g/n/ac (2×2) Wi-Fi and Bluetooth 5 combo

3.Acer Nitro 5

About this item

  • Free upgrade to Windows 11 when available*
  • Processor : Intel Core i5-11400H processor
  • RAM : 8 GB of DDR4 system memory, upgradable to 32 GB using two soDIMM modules
  • Graphics : NVIDIA GeForce RTX 3050 with 4GB of dedicated GDDR6 VRAM
  • Display : 15.6″ display with IPS (In-Plane Switching) technology, Full HD 1920 x 1080, Acer ComfyView LED-backlit TFT LCD,16:9 aspect ratio, supporting 144 Hz refresh rate
  • Storage : 256 GB, PCIe Gen3, 8 Gb/s, NVMe SSD + 1 1 TB 2.5-inch 7200 RPM HDD
  • Battery Life up to 8 hours | OS : Windows 10 Home | Weight 2.4 Kgs
  • Keyborad : RGB Backlit Keyboard

4.Lenovo ThinkPad E15

About this item

  • ThinkPad Reliability (12 Military Specifications Certified) | Built to withstand rugged usage and can handle accidental knocks, drops, and even spills | Best for Work/ Learn/ Play from home
  • Processor: 11th Gen Intel Core i5-1135G7 processor, 2.4Ghz base speed, 4.2Ghz max speed, 4Cores, 8Mb Smart Cache
  • Operating System: Pre-loaded Windows 10 Home with lifetime validity
  • Display: 15.6-inch screen with (1920X1080) Full HD Display | Anti Glare technology | 720p HD Camera with Thinkshutter | Connectivity: Intel Wireless-AC 9560, 802.11ac Dual Band 2×2 Wi-Fi + Bluetooth 5.1 | Audio: Stereo speakers, 2W x2, Dolby Audio, HARMAN-branded| Dual array microphone
  • Memory: 8GB RAM | Storage: 512GB SSD
  • Design and battery: Thin and light Laptop | 180 Degree Hinge | Laptop weight 1.7kg | Battery Life: Upto 10.8 hours* as per MobileMark | Rapid Charge (80% in 1 hour)
  • Pre-installed software: Microsoft Office Home & Student 2019 | Inside the box: Laptop with battery, Charger, User manual

5.Microsoft Surface Laptop

About this item

  • Free upgrade to Windows 11 when available. Disclaimer – Upgrade rollout plan is being finalized and is scheduled to begin late in 2021 and continue into 2022. Specific timing will vary by device.
  • Processor: AMD Ryzen 5 4680U Processor
  • Operating system: Windows 10 Home , Microsoft 365 Family 30-day trial | In the box: Surface Laptop 4, Power Supply, Quick Start Guide, Safety and warranty documents
  • Display: 13.5 inch 2256 x 1504 PixelSense display | Touchscreen enabled | Surface Pen enabled
  • Memory & Storage: 8 GB LPDDR4X RAM | Storage: 256 GB SSD
  • Graphics: AMD Radeon Graphics
  • Design and battery: Touchscreen | Thin and light design | Laptop weight: 1.26 Kg | Average battery life = 19 hrs

6.Apple MacBook Air

About this item

  • Apple-designed M1 chip for a giant leap in CPU, GPU, and machine learning performance
  • Go longer than ever with up to 18 hours of battery life
  • 8-core CPU delivers up to 3.5x faster performance to tackle projects faster than ever
  • Up to eight GPU cores with up to 5x faster graphics for graphics-intensive apps and games
  • 16-core Neural Engine for advanced machine learning
  • 8GB of unified memory so everything you do is fast and fluid
  • Superfast SSD storage launches apps and opens files in an instant

7.MSI Bravo 15

About this item

  • Processor: AMD Ryzen 7 5800H Up To 4.4 GHz
  • “Operating System: Pre-loaded Windows 10 Home with lifetime validity |Preinstalled Software: MSI BurnRecovery, MSI Battery Calibration, MSI Help Desk, Norton Internet Security (trail 60days) Norton Studio (Metro) (permanent free), Nvidia GeForce Experience, Nahimic 3, Dragon Center | In the box: Laptop, adapter”
  • Display: 15.6″ FHD (1920*1080), IPS-Level 144Hz Thin Bezel, 45% NTSC
  • Memory & Storage: 8 GB x2 DDR4 3200MHz RAM, expandable to 64 GB | Storage: 512GB NVMe SSD.
  • AMD Radeon RX5500M, GDDR6 4GB GDDR6 Dedicated Graphics
  • “Thin and light design | Laptop weight: 2.35 kg “
  • Keyboard: Steelseries RED Backlit Keyboard | Camera: HD type (30fps@720p) | Microphone: Built-in microphone

8.DELL XPS 9370

About this item

  • GHz Intel Core i5 – 8250 U processor
  • 8GB DDR3 RAM
  • 256 GB SSDGB hard drive
  • 13.3-inch screen, Intel UHD Graphics 0GB Graphics
  • Windows 10 Home operating system
  • 1 Lithium ion batteries required.
  • 20 x 30.4 x 1 cm; 1 Kilograms
  • components includes Laptop, Battery, AC Adapter, User Guide and Manuals
  • width ‎30.4 Centimeters
  • height 10 Millimeters

9. LG Gram 16 Ultra-Light 

About this item

  • Processor & OS: Intel 11th Gen Corei5-1135G7 (2.4 GHz, Turbo up to 4.2 GHz, L3 Cache 8MB, 28 W)- Window 10
  • Display: 16″ (40.6 cm) WQXGA (2560 x 1600) 16:10 Aspect Ratio IPS Display with DCI-P3 99%
  • Memory: 8 GB LPDDR4X (Dual Channel-4266 MHz)
  • Storage: 512 GB SSD (Type:M.2 2280) NVMe with additional expansion slot
  • Product & Battery: Weight 1.19 Kg Magnesium Alloy – 80 Wh Battery with 16.5 hr back-up (* MobileMark 2018)

10.Razer Blade 15

About this item

  • More power: The 10th Gen Intel Core i7-10750H processor provides the ultimate level of performance with up to 5.0 GHz max turbo and 6 cores.
  • Ray-tracing: The NVIDIA GeForce RTX 2060 is powered by the NVIDIA Turing GPU architecture and brings cinematic-quality rendering to the most visually intense games.
  • More frames: Incredible performance paired with the fast 144Hz 15. 6″ full HD thin bezel display helps edge out the win.
  • Thin and compact: The CNC aluminum unibody frame houses incredible performance in the most compact footprint possible, while remaining remarkably durable and just 0.78″ thin.
  • Ready to connect: Fully loaded with Wi-Fi 6, Gigabit Ethernet, Thunderbolt 3, USB type-A and type-C ports, and HDMI, for a desktop-class experience Make it yours: Customize the backlight color of the keyboard with Razer Chroma, and expand the memory and storage, making the Razer Blade 15 uniquely yours.

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